The education system in the Russian Federation (RF) is regulated by the Constitution of the RF (1993), the Law on Education in the RF (adopted in 2012 and enacted in 2013) and the Federal Programme “Development of Education” for years 2018-2025. The key principles governing the education system are universal access, quality and personal development. The governance of the HE system is executed on three levels: federal, regional and municipal. The Ministry of Science and Higher Education - the key federal authority - is responsible for setting education standards and for policy-making, including the financial policy and the legal regulation of the system of higher education. The HE policy is implemented by the regional education administrations and HEIs that have significant autonomy and can adopt their own regulations. The regional law-making authorities can adopt regional education legislation. On the institutional level, the Rector, who normally serves for five years and is eligible for reappointment for another five- year term, is the chief academic and administrative officer of the University and has a number of deputy/vice-rectors responsible for specific activities and operational issues.
All HEIs in Russia fall under the following categories: public federal universities, national research universities, flagship public regional universities, branches of the public federal and national research universities, other public universities, private universities. The two-cycle system (Bachelor and Master) compatible with the Bologna requirements has been mandatory since 2011 with the exception of a number of specialized areas where professional degrees are awarded. The third-cycle study programmes have been institutionalized in Russia only recently. Under the Law on Education, doctoral studies (aspirantura) are recognized as a separate cycle. Study programmes and curricula of all three cycles are developed in line with the state HE standards. With the emergence and systematic implementation of occupational standards in 2013, all curricula must align with them. Respective methodological recommendations were prepared by the National Qualifications Council and approved by the Ministry of Education and Science in early 2015. They were updated in spring 2017.
HEIs deliver Bachelor, Master, and Doctoral programmes (as well as traditional one-cycle HE programmes (specialist), leading to Bachelor, Master, candidate of sciences degrees and specialist qualifications, respectively. The duration of the programmes is: four years for Bachelor, two years for Master, three (four for certain subject areas) years for full-time doctoral programmes, and five/six years for one-cycle professional programmes, depending on the area of training. A standard programme/course includes lectures, seminars, students’ independent work, laboratory work and industry placements/workplace training/work based learning (practical training periods). Curricula for all cycles comprise a mandatory part and electives. The mandatory part comprises 50% for bachelor programmes, and 70% - for specialist programmes and 15% for master programmes. Curriculum development is regulated by the federal HE standards that set requirements for the competences to be developed, for the structure of the programme, learning environment and teacher qualifications. Admission to bachelor and specialist programmes is competition-based and dependent on the results of the Unified State Examination (USE) recognized as entrance examination results, and/or on results of admission tests administered by HEIs independently. Admission to master programmes is competition-based and dependent on the results of admission tests administered by HEIs independently.
A significant progress has been made in recent years in the development and strengthening of HE in Russia. Overall, HE policy objectives are aimed at enhancing international competitiveness of Russia’s universities and quality of education, ensuring the relevance on the labour market of the delivered curricula and employability of graduates, strengthening support to engineering education, etc. It is also envisaged to ensure that at least 5 Russian universities be included in the 100 top world ranking universities. The Federal Programme “The Development of Education” (2018-2025) aims at ensuring the high quality of Russia’s education, its accessibility, including online access, in line with the needs of the population and goals of Russian society and economy. To this end specific objectives include creation of a flexible system of continuing education that is accountable to the society, and enhances the human capital capable of addressing the current and prospective needs of social and economic development of Russia; development of an infrastructure, organizational and economic mechanisms ensuring equity of access to education services for children; modernization of school curricula; creation of an up-to-date system of education quality evaluation based on the principles of openness and transparency.
The expected outcomes include: enhanced qualifications of teachers and improved attractiveness of the teaching profession; enhanced efficiency of using the state budgetary funds under the new financial mechanisms; reduced gap between the demand and supply of skills for key areas of economic and industrial innovative development; increased number of RF universities in the first 500 top world ranking universities; diversified opportunities for lifelong learning. The State Programme’s objectives include implementation of structural and technological innovations in VET and HE, development of up-to-date content and methodology of teaching and learning, establishment of an infrastructure for training and upskilling the work force for the economy and of a up-to-date system of QA in VET and HE. Under the Programme, it is envisaged to provide subsidies from the federal budget to RF regions to enhance quality and competitiveness of education, dissemination of the new models of accessible learning environment, structural, content and technological innovations. In implementation of the above, under the aegis of the National Council for Qualifications Development, basic principles have been developed and approved on the independent accreditation of HE curricula, which were established in Federal Law on Independent Qualification Assessment in 2016. Also the legal framework has improved (new competence-based education standards have been adopted and are currently updated); practical orientation of programmes and the development of networks have enhanced based on systemic university-enterprise cooperation and of the internationalization processes in HE.
Due to the above, further integration in the EHEA, including the use of Bologna instruments has been achieved. These factors will be conducive to fostering joint curricula with foreign universities and to meeting the needs of diversified target groups by using up-to-date technologies, such as MOOCs and Open Educational Resources. The key drivers of the reform process are universities and labour market actors as well as the Ministry of Science and HE, which accumulates the incoming signals and turns them into regulatory documents. Major national reforms in HE include updating of the HE curricula and education standards based on the permanently increased set of occupational standards, adoption of the project approach for State Programme of Education Development 2018-2025, process of adoption of the fourth generation of HE standards.
Russia takes an active part in the EU Erasmus+ Programme that has integrated former Tempus, Jean Monnet, Marie Sklodowska-Curie and Erasmus Mundus instruments. These programmes pursued a wide range of activities: mobility visits (credit and degree mobility), training, curriculum development, capacity building of institutional structures and management, reform of higher education policies, equipment purchase, research, etc.
The impact of the Tempus Programme on higher education development in Russia
The Russian Federation participated in the Tempus programme since 1994. The programme had considerable impact on the internationalisation of HE, on strengthening the long-term intensive inter-university cooperation and networking. During the 20 years of the Tempus programme in Russia, over 390 projects were implemented with the help of EU grants amounting to over €132 million. The implemented projects have resulted in the modernization of RF higher education, namely – in updating old and developing new curricula compatible with the curricula at European universities, including Bachelor and Master programmes in numerous fields, development and implementation of upskilling courses for the non-academic community, new models of governance at universities including the establishment of networking mechanisms, new models of managing university intellectual property, innovative quality assurance mechanisms established at universities, new models of organizing work of international cooperation departments at universities, introduction of mechanisms of the Bologna Process, double-degree curricula, etc. Beneficiaries of Tempus grants have successfully implemented institution building initiatives and have developed links with public organisations, NGOs and businesses.
The Tempus Programme has also greatly influenced the development of students’ mobility. Students perceive very positively the work carried out with the support of Tempus. According to them, Tempus has helped them to improve their qualifications through new cross-cultural communication experiences, improved their foreign language skills, and the acquisition of up-to-date professional knowledge. Labour market interest in graduates has also increased as Tempus projects have improved cooperation between universities and ministries.
It can be concluded that the Tempus programme has considerably contributed to enhancing international cooperation by creating conditions for multiple partnerships between Russian and European Universities. At the same time, due to the involvement in the Tempus Programme, Russian universities have developed awareness of the need for a further decentralisation of university governance and for enhancing its flexibility and its labour market relevance.
The impact of Erasmus+ projects in Russia
The Russian Federation took active part in calls for proposals for Capacity Building in Higher Education (CBHE) projects from the inception of Erasmus plus in 2014 and submitted every year about 100 proposals on the average. The permanent interest of Russian universities to cooperation and finding capacity building areas together with Programme and Partner countries’ universities resulted in funding for 13 projects in 2015, 16 in 2016, 11 in 2017 and 10 in 2018. Traditionally Russian universities are involved also in Jean Monnet activities and ask for funding every year, the statistics of received grants are the following – 33 in 2016, 12 in 2017, and 23 in 2018.
International Credit and Academic Mobility funded by Erasmus + programmes increases every year and attracted in 2018 almost 4 thousand students and teachers for incoming and outcoming activities.
The Russian scholars and authorities emphasize that the Erasmus+ programme is a successful example of European integration and serves as a symbol of construction of cross-cultural and cross-national identity. HEIs coordinating the activities of Erasmus + actions have begun to prepare, periodically revise and issue their own catalogues for student and academic mobility abroad. Many universities have started seeking for greater impact of teacher professional development on the university strategic development and its sustainability, they have changed the traditional forms of dissemination activities to innovative forms. The priority is now given to the more proactive experience of sharing experience based on the value of co-creation perspective with the aim to actively involve other colleagues in working together as a learning community with shared responsibility and creating learning experiences necessary to achieve the desired outcomes. HE administrators have started to be comfortable with the consortium model of projects and favourable for joining into experience dissemination activities.
Universities that implemented the Erasmus+ projects focus more intensively on the questions of integration and monitoring of the project outcomes into the process of quality self-assessment, finding the links between aims reached by the project and school performance indicators, foreseeing support and development of project outcomes in the plans for improvement of school performance. University leaders in order to ensure sustainability of project results, managerial decisions directed to improvement of teachers’ professional performance in classrooms, have started real collaboration with partners from Programme and Partners Countries, national industry and authorities as well.
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE MISSION TO HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN RUSSIA
- "Preparation and implementation of joint curricula" by Dr Rosa Becker from Nuffic, Knowledge & Innovation Department, Moscow, February 12-13, 2019
- “Up-to-date methods of teaching and learning” by Dr Marian McCarthy, University College Cork, Ireland, Moscow, February 18-19, 2019
- “Patterns of work-based learning in HE curricula” by Dr Tina Byrom from Nottingham University, Moscow, April 17-18, 2019
· “Modernization of doctoral programmes in line with the best European samples: what skills are specific to the doctoral level and how can they be effectively fostered” by Prof. Mick Fuller, School of Biological Sciences Plymouth University, Moscow, June 5-6, 2017
· “Forms and formats of internationalization at home” by Prof. Robert Coelen from the Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Moscow, October 3-4, 2017
· “Development of National Platform for Open On-Line Courses on Quality Assurance”, Implementation and Accreditation”, by Prof. Mark Brown, Director of the National Institute for Digital Learning at Dublin City University, Moscow, November 14-15, 2017
· “Competence-based PhD and Master programmes development” by Prof. Anthony Vickers, University of Essex”, Moscow, March 23-24, 2016
· “Recognition of non-formal and informal learning” by EU expert Dr Hanne Smidt, Moscow, September 21-22, 2016
Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation:
Delegation of the European Union to Russia:
National Erasmus+ Office in Russia:
Overview of the Higher Education System in Russia:
State Programme “Development of Education’ 2025”:
Federal Supervision Service in Education and Science (ROSOBRNADZOR):
Membership of the Russian Federation in the Bologna Process
National Information Centre for Academic Recognition and Mobility in Russia:
Bologna club in Russia: